Soil parameters and bioclimatic characteristics affecting essential oil composition of leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. from València (Spain)


Volatile organic compounds, chemotypes, soil-plant-bioclimatic relationships


The variability of the soils found in an area together with the diversity of the bioclimatic parameters will affect the chemical profile of plant species, in our case Pistacia lentiscus L. The aim of this work is to analyse the bioclimatic characteristics and soil parameters affecting the essential oil (EO) composition of the leaves of the Pistacia lentiscus L. growing in València (Spain). The EO compositions of dried leaves of Pistacia lentiscus L. from five sampling sites with noticeable differences in soil and climate features were analysed by GC(MS) and GD(FID). The main bioclimatic and soil parameters were also determined in order to relate them to oil composition. a-pinene (2.8-39.2%), myrcene (0.6-59.3%), b-phellandrene (0.0-42.8%), germacrene-D (3.9-20.4%) and terpinen-4-ol (0.2-19.0%) were found to be the major compounds showing a high variability. The five sampling sites presented well-defined bioclimatic and edaphic characteristics that could be related to specific EO profiles. The results suggested that the EO composition of P. lentiscus L. depends more on the edaphic factors interacting with bioclimate conditions than on the geographical origin itself. Some general trends could be established based on the results: the Calcaric Arenosol (Saler) with a high evapotranspiration index was associated with a high sesquiterpenic fraction, (germacrene-D and b-caryophyllene, mainly). The Luvisol (Borrell and L’Ull), with high amounts of a + b-pinene, were found to be related to sub-humid bioclimatic conditions and clayey and fertile soils (high CEC and OM levels). This last requirement was also observed to be related to the myrcene content, but with drier climatic conditions and calcareous soils (Haplic Calcisol) with high level of carbonates and active lime (Lliria). The rest of hydrocarbon monoterpene and oxygenated monoterpene (terpinen-4-ol, mainly) fractions could be related to a dry climate and non-calcareous and low fertility soils (Eutric Regosol, Segart). Given the most suitable composition related to specific and useful biological activities, new research of controlled environmental factors (soil features and bioclimatic conditions) should be conducted in order to define the best conditions to manage industrial crops of P. lentiscus L.


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