Since soil CO2 flux is a key component of ecosystem carbon balance, quantifying its contribution to the ecosystem carbon flux and understanding the factors that underlie its temporal variation is crucial for a better comprehension of ecosystem carbon dynamics under climate change and for optimal ecosystem use and management. Our objectives were to quantify the contributions of total soil CO2 efflux (FS) to ecosystem respiration (RE) and heterotrophic soil CO2 efflux (FH) to FS in two chinampa ecosystems with different natural grass covers. We also aimed to identify the main environmental drivers of seasonal variability of these contributions. The CO2 fluxes were measured on each site about every 14 days from September 2008 to August 2009 in the Xochimilco Ecological Park in Mexico City using dark chamber techniques. For two studied sites, RE, FS and FH were estimated on average as 94.1 ± 8.5, 34.7 ± 3.5 and 16.5 ± 1.7 (± S.E.) mg C-CO2 m-2 h-1, respectively. On average over the study period and sites, the annual cumulative RE, FS and FH fluxes were 824 ± 74, 304 ± 31 and 145 ± 15 g C m-2 year, respectively. The RE, FS and FH varied between the winter and summer seasons; this variation was explained mostly by seasonal variations of soil temperature, soil water content and shoot plant biomass. Temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes depended on vegetation type and plant growth differences among the sites and decreased in the following order: RE > Rs > RH. The contribution of FS to RE and FH to FS for the two studied sites and period averaged about 38% and 50%, respectively regardless of the site vegetation type, but the degree of FS/RE and FH/FS variability depended on the differences in seasonal dynamics of plant cover. The contribution of FH to FS varied from 37% in summer to 73% in winter at the site without a seasonal shift in dominant plant species, but FH/FS was close to constant during the year at the site with a seasonal change in dominant plant species. During the cold period, the contribution of FH to FS increased following plant growth decrease. The linear regression analysis showed that plant biomass was the dominant factor controlling the seasonal variation of FH/FS ratios, whereas the plant biomass dynamic followed the dynamics of soil water content, water table depth, and soil temperature. Our results suggest that seasonal variation of soil contribution to total fluxes from the chinampa ecosystem is locally differentiated. These differences were related to differences in seasonal dynamics of cover productivity which has been associated with localization of soil water content. This finding has important implications for assessing the contribution of the chinampa ecosystem to the global carbon budget.
Alm J, Talanov A, Saarnio S, Silvola J, Ikkonen E, Aaltonen H, Nykanen H, Martikainen P. 1997. Reconstruction of the carbon balance for microsites in a boreal oligotrophic pine fen, Finland. Oecologia 110:423-431.
Almagro M, López J, Querejeta JI, Martínez-Mena M. 2009. Temperature dependence of soil CO2 efflux is strongly modulated by seasonal patterns of moisture availability in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem. 41:594-605.
Atkin OK, Bruhn D, Hurry VM, Tjoelker MG. 2005. The hot and the cold: unraveling the variable response of plant respiration to temperature. Funct Plant Biol. 32:87-105.
Beltrán-Hernández RI, Luna-Guido ML, Dendooven L. 2007. Emission of carbon dioxide and dynamics of inorganic N in a gradient of alkaline saline soils of the former lake Texcoco. Appl Soil Ecol. 35:390-403.
Blanco-Jarvio A, Chávez-López C, Luna-Guido M, Dendooven L, Cabirol N. 2011. Denitrification in a chinampa soil of Mexico City as affected by methylparathion: A laboratory study. Europ J Soil Biol. 47:271-278.
Dendooven L, Alcántara-Hernández RJ, Valenzuela-Encinas C, Luna-Guido M, Perez-Guevara F, Marsch R. 2010. Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in an extreme alkaline soil: A review. Soil Biol Biochem. 42:865-877.
Dendooven L, Gutiérres-Oliva VF, Patiño-Zúñiga L, Ramírez-Vallanueva, Verhulst N, Luna-Guido M, Marsch R, Montes-Molina J, Gutiérres-Miceli FA, Vásquez-Murrieta S, Govaerts B. 2012a. Greenhouse gas emission under conservation agriculture compared to traditional cultivation of maize in the central highlands of Mexico. Sci Total Environ. 431:237-244.
Dendooven L, Patiño-Zúñiga L, Verhulst N, Luna-Guido M, Marsch R, Govaerts B. 2012b. Global warming potential of agricultural systems with contrasting tillage and residue management in the central highlands of Mexico. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 152:50-58.
García CN, Galicia PS, Aguilera HN, Reyes OL. 1994. Organic matter and humic substances contents in chinampa soils from Xochimilco-Tláhuac areas (Mexico). In: Proceedings of the 15th World Congress of Soils Science; 1994 July 10-16; Acapulco, Mexico; vol. 3: Symposium ID-12, p. 368-383.
Grogan P, Jonasson S. 2005. Temperature and substrate control on intra-annual variation in ecosystem respiration in two subarctic vegetation types. Glob Chang Biol. 11:465-475.
Hartley IP, Armstrong AF, Murthy R, Barron-Gafford G, Ineson P, Atkin OK. 2006. The dependence of respiration on photosynthetic substrate supply and temperature: integrating leaf, soil, and ecosystem measurements. Glob Chang Biol. 12:1954-968.
Hu Y, Jiang L, Wang S, Zhang Z, Luo C, Bao X, Niu H, Xu G, Duan J, Zhu X, Cui S, Du M. 2016. The temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration to climate change in an alpine meadow on the Tibet plateau: A reciprocal translocation experiment. Agric For Meteorol. 216:93-104.
Ikkonen E, García-Calderón NE, Stephan-Otto E, Fuentes-Romero E, Ibáñez-Huerta A, Martínez-Arroyo A, Krasilnikov P. 2012a. The CO2 production in anthropogenic chinampas soils in Mexico City. Span J Soil Sci. 2(2):62-73.
Ikkonen E, García-Calderón NE, Stephan-Otto E, Martínez-Arroyo A. 2012b. Gas diffusivity in chinampas soils in Mexico City. Span J Soil Sci. 2(3):13-19.
IUSS Working Group WRB. 2006. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. 2nd Edition. World Soil Resources Reports No 103. Rome: FAO.
Jiménez-Osornio JJ, Gómez-Pompa A. 1987. Las chinampas mexicanas. Pensamiento Iberoamericano, Revista de Economía Politica 12:201-214.
Jiménez-Osornio JJ, Rojas-Rabiela T, del Amo S, Gómez-Pompa A. 1995. Conclusiones y recomendaciones del taller. In: Rojas-Rabiela T, editor. Presente, Pasado y Futuro de las Chinampas. México, DF: CIESAS, Patronato del Parque Ecológico de Xochimilco. p. 18-52.
Juszczak R, Humphreys E, Arosta M, Michalak-Galczewska MM, Kayzer D, Olejnik J. 2013. Ecosystem respiration in a heterogeneous temperate peatland and its sensitivity to peat temperature and water table depth. Plant Soil 366:505-520.
Kuzyakov Y, Cheng W. 2001. Photosynthesis control of rhizosphere respiration and organic matter decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem. 33(14):1915-1925.
Lloyd J, Taylor J. 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Funct Ecol. 8:315-323.
López CJ, Sánchez-Cañete EP, Serrano-Ortiz P, López-Ballesteros A, Domingo F, Kowalski AS, Oyonarte C. 2018. From microhabitat to ecosystem: identifying the biophysical factors controlling soil CO2 dynamics in a karst shrubland. Eur J Soil Sci. 69:1018-1029.
Luna-Guido ML, Beltrán-Hernández RI, Solίs-Ceballos NA, Hernández-Chávez N, Mercado-Garcίa F, Catt JA, Olalde-Portugal V, Dendooven L. 2000. Chemical and biological characteristics of alkaline saline soils from the former Lake Texcoco as affected by artificial drainage. Biol Fertil Soils 32:102-108.
Mahecha MD, Reichstein M, Carvalhais N. 2010. Global convergence in the temperature sensitivity of respiration at ecosystem level. Science 329:838-40.
Martin JG, Bolstad PV. 2005. Annual soil respiration in broadleaf forests of northern Wisconsin: influence of moisture and site biological, chemical and physical characteristics. Biogeochemistry 73:149-182.
Meyer N, Welp G, Amelung W. 2018. The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil respiration: Controlling factors and spatial prediction at regional scale based on environmental soil classes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 32(2):306-323.
Ortiz-Cornejo NL, Luna-Guido M, Rivera-Espinoza Y, Vásquez-Murrieta MS, Ruiz-Valdiviezo VM, Dendooven L. 2015. Greenhouse gas emission from a chinampa soil or floating gardens in Mexico. Rev Int Contam Ambie. 31(4):343-350.
Ramos-Bello R, García-Calderón NE, Ortega-Escobar HM, Krasilnikov P. 2011. Artificial chinampas soils of Mexico City: their properties and salinization hazards. Span J Soil Sci. 1(1):70-85.
Santos GAA, Moitinho MR, Silva BO, Xavier CV, Teixeira DB, Corá JE, La Scala Júnior N. 2019. Effects of long-term no-tillage systems with different succession cropping strategies on the variation of soil CO2 emission. Sci Total Environ. 686:413-424
Silva CC, Guido Ml, Ceballos JM, Marsch R, Dendooven L. 2008. Production of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in alkaline saline soil of Texcoco at different water content amended with urea: A laboratory study. Soil Biol Biochem. 40:1813-1822.
Silva BO, Moitinho MR, Santos GAA, Teixeira DB, Fernandes C, La Scala Jr N. 2019. Soil CO2 emission and short-term soil pore class distribution after tillage operations. Soil Tillage Res. 186:224-232.
Silvola J, Alm J, Ahlholm U, Nykänen H, Martikainen PJ. 1996. CO2 fluxes from peat in boreal mires under varying temperature and moisture conditions. J Ecol. 84:219-228.
Song B, Niu S, Luo R, Luo Y, Chen J, Yu G, Olejnik J, Wohlfanrt G, et al. 2014. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration. J Plant Ecol. 7(5):419-428.
Subke J-A, Inglima I, Cotrufo F. 2006. Trends and methodological impacts in soil CO2 efflux partitioning: a metaanalytical review. Glob Chang Biol. 12:921-943.
Vanhala P, Karhu K, Tuomi M, Bjorklof K, Fritze H, Liski J. 2008. Temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition in southern and northern areas of the boreal forest zone. Soil Biol Biochem. 40:1758-1764.
Wang W, Fang J. 2009. Soil respiration and human effects on global grasslands. Glob Planet Change 67:20-28.
Wang X, Piao S, Ciais P, Janssens I, Reichstein M, Peng S, Wang T. 2010. Are ecological gradients in seasonal Q10 of soil respiration explained by climate or by vegetation seasonality? Soil Biol Biochem. 42:1728-1734.
Widén B, Majdi H. 2001. Soil CO2 efflux and root respiration at three sites in a mixed pine and spruce forest: seasonal and diurnal variation. Can J For Res. 31(5):786-796.
Xavier CV, Moitinho MR, Teixeira DB, Santos GAA, Barbosa MA, Milori DMBP, Everlon Rigobelo, Corá JE, La Scala Júnior N. 2019. Crop rotation and succession in a no-tillage system: Implications for CO2 emission and soil attributes. J Environ Econ Manag. 245:8-15.
Zobitz JM, Moore DJP, Sacks WS, Monson RK, Bowling DR, Schimel DS. 2008. Integration of process-based soil respiration model with whole-ecosystem CO2 measurements. Ecosystems 11:250-269.