Effect of incubation time on transformation rate and chemical forms of phosphorous in calcareous soils along a climotoposequence


Soil phosphorous fertility can be significantly affected by the P transformation rate in soils. The present study was designed to evaluate the application of time-dependent P fertilizer in terms of its availability and chemical forms in 23 soils of a climotoposequence. The collected soil samples were incubated with 200 µg g-1 P as KH2PO4 for 1, 20, 60, 100, 150, and 200 days at 25 °C and after that, the available and chemical forms of P were determined for each incubation time. A rapid decrease in available P was observed within 20 days after application of P fertilizer. A 200-day application of P led to a decrease in the available P by 15% compared to the one-day application. In addition, the biphasic pattern of transformation rate of available P fitted well to parabolic and power function models. The results of sequential extraction methods showed that in treated and untreated soils, Ca-bound P, residual P, Fe- and Al-bound P were the highest fractions, while the exchangeable form was the lowest. At the end of incubation, on average, only 15% of total P (200 μg g-1) remained as exchangeable-P, while this amount was 40.6% and 28.5% at days 1 and 20, respectively. In addition, among all soil characteristics, mineralogical properties showed the most obvious effects on controlling the chemical forms of P over time.



Banaei MH. 1998. Soil moisture and temperature regime map of Iran. Soil and Water Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Iran.

Bertrand I, Holloway RE, Armstrong RD, McLaughlin MJ. 2003. Chemical characteristics of phosphorous in alkaline soils from southern Australia. Soil Res. 41:61-76.

Bouyoucos GJ. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agron J. 54:464-465.

Bünemann EK, Oberson A, Frossard E, editors. 2010. Phosphorous in action: biological processes in soil phosphorous cycling. Vol. 26. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. 483 p.

Correll DL. 1998. The role of phosphorous in the eutrophication of receiving waters: a review. J Environ Qual. 27(2):261-266.

Delgado A, Madrid A, Kassem S, Andreu L, Del Campillo MDC. 2002. Phosphorous fertilizer recovery from calcareous soils amended with humic and fulvic acids. Plant Soil 245:277-286.

Devau N, Hinsinger P, Le Cadre E, Colomb B, Gérard F. 2011. Fertilization and pH effects on processes and mechanisms controlling dissolved inorganic phosphorous in soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:2980-2996.

Gérard F. 2016. Clay minerals, iron/aluminum oxides, and their contribution to phosphate sorption in soils-A myth revisited. Geoderma 262:213-226.

Griffin TS, Honeycutt CW, He Z. 2003. Changes in soil phosphorous from manure application. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 67:645-653.

Hedley MJ, Stewart JWB, Chauhan B. 1982. Changes in inorganic and organic soil phosphorous fractions induced by cultivation practices and by laboratory incubations. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 46:970-976.

Hinsinger P. 2001. Bioavailability of soil inorganic P in the rhizosphere as affected by root-induced chemical changes: a review. Plant Soil 237:173-195.

Holford ICR. 1997. Soil phosphorous: its measurement, and its uptake by plants. Soil Res. 35:227-240.

Jackson ML, Barak P. 2005. Soil Chemical Analysis. Revised 2nd edition. Madison, Wi: UW-Madison Libraries Parallel Press. 930 p.

Jalali M. 2006. Soil phosphorous buffer coefficient as influenced by time and rate of P addition. Arch Agron Soil Sci. 52:269-279.

Jalali M, Ahmadi Mohammad Zinli N. 2011. Kinetics of phosphorous release from calcareous soils under different land use in Iran. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. 174:38-46.

Jalali M, Ranjbar F. 2010. Aging effects on phosphorous transformation rate and fractionation in some calcareous soils. Geoderma 155:101-106.

Javid S, Rowell DL. 2002. A laboratory study of the effect of time and temperature on the decline in Olsen P following phosphate addition to calcareous soils. Soil Use Manage. 18:127-134.

Johns WD, Grim RE, Bradley WF. 1954. Quantitative estimations of clay minerals by diffraction methods. J Sediment Res. 24:242-251.

Karaman MR, Ersahin S, Durak A. 2001. Spatial variability of available phosphorous and site specific P fertilizer recommendations in a wheat field. In: Plant Nutrition. Springer Netherlands. p. 876-877.

Kier LD, Kirkland DJ. 2013. Review of genotoxicity studies of glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations. Crit Rev Toxicol. 43:283-315.

Kittrick JA, Hope EW. 1963. A procedure for the particle-size separation of soils for X-ray diffraction analysis. Soil Science 96:319-325.

Kuo S, Mikkelsen DS. 1980. Kinetics of zinc desorption from soils. Plant Soil 56:355-364.

Linquist BA, Ruark MD, Hill JE. 2011. Soil order and management practices control soil phosphorous fractions in managed wetland ecosystems. Nutr Cycling Agroecosyst. 90: 1-62.

Loeppert RH, Suárez DL. 1996. Carbonate and gypsum. In: Sparks DL, editor. Methods of soil analysis. Madison (WI): Soil Science Society of America. p. 437-474.

Mehra OP, Jackson ML. 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays and Clays Minerals 7:317-327.

Meteorological Organization of Iran. 2016. Climatology Reports of Iran. 2011-2016.

Murphy J, Riley JP. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim. Acta 27:31-36.

Nelson DW, Sommers LE. 1996. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA Book series no.5. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy. p. 961-1010.

Nesme T, Colomb B, Hinsinger P, Watson CA. 2014. Soil phosphorous management in organic cropping systems: from current practices to avenues for a more efficient use of P resources. In: Bellon S, Penvern S, editors. Organic Farming, Prototype for Sustainable Agricultures. Amsterdam: Springer Netherlands. p. 23-45. DOI : 10.1007/978-94-007-7927-3_2.

Olsen SR, Sommers LE, Page AL. 1982. Phosphorous. In: Page AL, editor. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America. p. 403-430.

Pierzynski GM, McDowell R, Sims JT. 2005. Chemistry, cycling, and potential movement of inorganic phosphorous in soils. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN, editors. Phosphorous: Agriculture and the Environment. Madison, WI: ASA, CSSA and SSSA. p. 53-86.

Rayment GE, Lyons DJ. 2011. Soil chemical methods: Australasia (Australian Soil and Land Survey Handbooks Series) (Vol. 3). Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. 512 p.

Saffari M, Karimian N, Ronaghi A, Yasrebi J, Ghasemi-Fasaei R. 2016. Stabilization of lead as affected by various amendments and incubation time in a calcareous soil. Arch Agron Soil Sci. 62:317-337.

Sims JT, Pierzynski GM. 2005. Chemistry of phosphorous in soil. In: Tabatabai AM, Sparks DL, editors. Chemical processes in soil. SSSA Book Series no. 8. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy. p. 151-192

Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12th ed. Washington, DC: USDA-NRCS.

Sumner ME, Miller WP. 1996. Cation exchange capacity and exchange coefficients. Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. SSSA Book Series no. 5. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy. p. 1201-1229.

Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD, Havlin JL. 2002. Soil fertility and fertilizer. 5th Edition. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. p. 45-79.

Wang X, Jackman JM, Yost RS, Linquist BA. 2000. Predicting soil phosphorous buffer coefficients using potential sorption site density and soil aggregation. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 64:240-246.

Yang X, Post WM, Thornton PE, Jain A. 2013. The distribution of soil phosphorous for global biogeochemical modeling. Biogeosci. 10:2525-2537.

Zhang TQ, MacKenzie AF. 1997. Changes of soil phosphorous fractions under long-term corn monoculture. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 61:485-493.