Microdiagnostics of initial pedogenesis on a phosphogypsum dump


This paper presents the results of the study of initial pedogenesis on phosphogypsum dump rocks under dry steppe bioclimatic conditions (Balakovo, Saratov Region, Russia). It was shown that a soil crust about 3 cm thick was formed at the dump surface as a result of natural pedogenic processes over a period of 20-30 years. Such soil crusts act to cement the surface and protect the dump material from deflation and water erosion. The crust was shown to consist of two parts that can be distinguished by morphological features: an upper part (about 2 cm thick) of a more firmly bound material more grey in colour and a lower part (about 1 cm thick) with a looser consistency and lighter colour. The structural organisation is primarily determined by the presence of live roots of grasses and mosses, which is characteristic of a biogenic crust. The two parts of the crust were characterized at both macro- and micro-scales, by use of thin sections and tomographic imagery. The presence of humification features and porosity observed within the crust allowed for the diagnostics of initial pedogenesis.





Allen BL. 1985. Micromorphology of Aridisols. In: Douglas LA, Thompson ML, editors. Soil Micromorphology and Soil Classification. Madison: Soil Science Society of America Publications. p. 197-217.

Аndrokhanov ВА, Оvsyannikova СВ, Кurachev ВВ. 2000. Technozems: Properties, Regime, Function. Novosibirsk. Nauka (in Russian).

Atkinson K. 1979. Morphology and mineralogy of Red Desert soil in the Libyan Sahara. Earth Surface Processes 4:103-115.

Belnap J, Rosentreter R, Leonard S, Kaltenecker JH, Williams J, Eldridge D. 2001. Biological Soil Crusts: Ecology and Management. Materials Distribution Center. Denver, Colorado, USA: Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management.

Belobrov VP, Lebedeva MP, Grebennikov AM, Torochkov EL, Ryashko AI, Lebedev MI. 2016. Micromorphological diagnostics of biogenic crusts and microhorizons of initial pedogenesis on phosphogypsum dump. In: Abstracts of the 15th International Conference on Soil Micromorphology; 2016 Nov 27-Dec 5; Mexico City, Mexico; p. 16-17.

Belobrov VP, Lubimova IN, Grebennikov AM, Lebedeva-Verba МP, Lebedev МА, Abrosimov KN, Kulenkamp AYU, Riashko AI. 2014. Microporosity and Microstructure of Phosphogypsum. Moscow: NIUIF. р. 511-515 (in Russian).

Bouza P, Del Valle HF. 1993. Micromorphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soil crust types of the Central Patagonia Region, Argentina. J Native Agricultural Envir. 7(4):355-368.

Briggs A, Morgan JW. 2008. Morphological diversity and abundance of biological soil crusts differ in relation to landscape setting and vegetation type. Aust J Bot. 56:246-253.

Dixon JC. 2009. Aridic soils, patterned ground, and desert pavements. In: Parsons AJ, Abrahams AD, editors. Geomorphology of Desert Environments. Netherlands: Springer. p. 101-120.

Environmental Protection in Russia. 2010. Statistical Yearbook Moscow. Rosstat Publ. 303 p. (in Russian).

Figuera HL. 1984. Horizonte vesicular: morfologia y genesis en un aridisol del norte de la patagonia. Ciencia del Suelo 2:121-129.

Fox SJ, Mills AJ, Poch RM. 2009. Micromorphology of surface crusts in the Knersvlakte, South Africa. Journal of Mountain Science 6(2):189-196.

Gerasimov IP. 1954. The features of similarity and difference in the nature of deserts. Priroda 2:11-22 (in Russian).

Gerasimova MI, Stroganova MN, Mozharova NV, Prokofieva TV. 2003. Anthropogenic Soils (Genesis, Geography, Reclamation). Мoscow: Moskow University (in Russian).

Goleusov PV, Lisetskii FN. 2005. Reproduction of Soils in Anthropogenic Landscapes of the Forest-Steppe. Belgorod: Belgorod national University (in Russian).

Gusev AP. 2006. Primary succession on dumps of phosphogypsum (Gomel chemical factory, Belarus). Ecologia 3:232-235 (in Russian).

IUSS Working Group WRB. 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. Rome: FAO.

Lubimova IN, Borisochkina TI. 2007. The Effect of Potentially Hazardous Chemical Elements Contained in Phosphogypsum in the Environment. Мoscow: V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute (in Russian).

Malam IO, Trichet J, Défarge C, Couté A, Valentin C. 1999. Morphology and microstructure of microbiotic soil crusts on a Tiger Bush sequence (Niger, Sahel). Catena 37:175-196.

Mees F, Singer A. 2006. Surface crusts on soils/ sediments of the southern Aral Sea basin, Uzbekistan. Geoderma 136:152-159.

Mees F, Tursina TV. 2010. Salt minerals in saline soils and salt crusts. In: Stoops G, Marcelino V, Mees F, editors. Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 441-469.

Pagliai M. 1994. Micromorphology and soil management. Developments in Soil Science, vol. 22. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 623-640.

Pagliai M. 2008. Crusts, crusting. In: Chesworth W, editor. Encyclopedia of Soil Science. Hidelberg: Springer. p. 171-179.

Pagliai M, La Marca M. 1979. Micromorphological study of soil crust. Agrochimica 23:16-25.

Pagliai M, Stoops G. 2010. Physical and biological surface crusts and seals. In: Stoops G, Marcelino V, Mees F, editors. Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 419-440.

Poch RM, Artieda O, Herrero J, Verba-Lebedeva M. 2010. Gypsic features. In: Stoops G, Marcelino V, Mees F, editors. Interpretetion of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths. Chapter 10. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 195-216.

Samkov YUE, Ogievskii DV, Pardaev TA. 1989. About the Natural Overgrowing of the Tailings Dumps of the "Phosphorite" Association. Study, Protection and Rational Use of Natural Resources. Ufa: Bashkir Scientific Center, Ural branch Academy of Sciences of the USSR (in Russian).

Stoops G. 2003. Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America. 184 p.

Uzarowicz Ł, Skiba S. 2011. Technogenic soils developed on mine spoils containing iron sulphides: Mineral transformations as an indicator of pedogenesis. Geoderma 163:95-108.

Vorob'eva LA. 1998. Chemical Analysis of Soils. Moscow: Moskow University (in Russian).