A micromorphological evaluation of pedogenesis on Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos) .


Thin sections of about 200 horizons or layers, representing 60 soil profiles in the coastal area and on the windward slopes of Isla Santa Cruz (Galápagos Islands) were analysed. Based on the fabric and the composition of the groundmass and the presence of pedofeatures in individual layers or horizons, clusters of similar material are made and 7 units and 3 subunits distinguished. Plotting these units on a survey map gives a good insight in the spatial distribution of soil materials, expressing different combinations of parent material and precipitation. In the coastal area and the lowest slopes, with a summer dry climate, respectively reddish and greyish and brown materials with a porphyric c/f related distribution pattern and striated b-fabrics, and often with fragmented illuvial clay coatings are observed. The coarse material contains mainly holocrystalline basalt fragments, unweathered in the coastal area, or basalt derived individual minerals. The micromass has a halloysitic-smectitic composition. On the higher slopes, with a permanent moist climate, materials have also a porphyric or fine monic c/f related distribution pattern, but the b-fabric is undifferentiated and no illuvial features are present, gibbsitic features sometimes occur and the micromass consists mainly of halloysite and gibbsite. Subunits are distinguished here according to the microstructure, and the quantity and type of coarse material. Mesocrystalline basalt, often vesicular, dominates over holocrystalline, pointing to the influence of scoria. Soils on the higher slopes are more strongly weathered than those on the drier lower slopes and the coastal area. In depressions in the higher areas, materials with a yellowish or brownish grey micromass with a striated b-fabric, and well developed limpid illuvial clay coatings and impregnative iron oxide nodules occur. The micromass has a halloysite-smectite composition. Contrary to existing hypotheses the reddish soils in the coastal area are not considered as palaeosoils (roots of tropical soils), but as modern soils developed in colluvium on the lower slopes, which was deposited on totally eroded surfaces (marine terraces?). On the slopes the distribution of units is not only determined by hypsometric zones, as suggested in literature, but is rather clustered according to types of parent material. The soils on Santa Cruz are supposed to be formed after the last interglacial period, different from the red soils of San Cristóbal which are older.
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