The concept of diversity has been widely used in ecological studies, although mainly for the biotic component (biodiversity). Regrettably, the effects of abiotic structures (e.g. soils) on the biotic components of ecosystems, landscapes and biomes are still a matter of discussion. We examined the similarity and differences in spatial and temporal patterns between biodiversity and pedodiversity. This comparative study was possible because of the increased availability of digital data on soils and other natural resources at various scales for pedodiversity analysis using the same theoretical concepts and tools applied by ecologists for biodiversity analyses. Remarkably, the spatial patterns of pedogeographic units detected by pedologists are similar to those reported by biologists for a plethora of ecosystems.